Extinction or Extermination: The Mystery of the Missing Bones Valerie L. Price

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Published: December 12th 2015

Kindle Edition

33 pages


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Extinction or Extermination: The Mystery of the Missing Bones  by  Valerie L. Price

Extinction or Extermination: The Mystery of the Missing Bones by Valerie L. Price
December 12th 2015 | Kindle Edition | PDF, EPUB, FB2, DjVu, audiobook, mp3, RTF | 33 pages | ISBN: | 5.42 Mb

One of the most successful species of terrestrial mammals, the horse, has been the subject of much study and debate (AMNS 2013). Horses originated in North America. The modern horse evolved from varied forms of Equids roughly 1.7 million years ago,MoreOne of the most successful species of terrestrial mammals, the horse, has been the subject of much study and debate (AMNS 2013).

Horses originated in North America. The modern horse evolved from varied forms of Equids roughly 1.7 million years ago, spreading around the globe from their native American range during periods of glaciation, when sea levels were lower and the landmass known as Beringea connected North America to Europe (Kirkpatrick, J. and Fazzio, P. 2008).The modern horse is so adaptable, many of its ancestors have been misidentified as alternate branches of the family tree, until recent testing of ancient DNA revealed much closer relationships. Testing of DNA samples taken from specimens of Equus lambei (Yukon Horse) preserved in permafrost, have led to the conclusion that E.

lambei was the genetic equivalent of E. caballus, the modern horse (Kirkpatrick, J. and Fazzio, P. 2008). Other Equine fossils, long thought to support a linear evolution in the species have since been determined to constitute a many branching family tree (Owen, J., 2005).Horses were extremely successful in almost every part of the world long before the ancestors of modern man left Africa (AMNS 2013).

For thousands of years, man exploited the horse as a food resource leaving the bones of equids for archaeologists to find in food refuse, mingled with the bones of other animals (Dolukhanov 2003). In North America, evidence of horse hunting has been all but non-existent.

The very first conclusive evidence of horses being killed by pre-historic Native Americans has been found in traces of horse proteins on spear points taken from sites in southern Alberta, Canada in 2001 (Mayell, H. 2001).



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